発表

1D-077

Self-Evaluation Maintenance Processes in Sibling Relationships and Birth Order Effect on Friend Relationships

[責任発表者] Aung Ko Ko Lynn:1
[連名発表者] Isozaki Mikitoshi:1
1:International Christian University

Purpose
To examine the effect of birth order on individual`s self-evaluation maintenance processes (Tesser, 1988) -comparison and reflection- in sibling relationships and friend relationships among university students.
Method
Participants: Seven hundred and five undergraduate students (469 females, 236 males) from International Christian University, Japan and Yangon University, Myanmar with a mean age of 18.83 years (SD=1 .83) voluntarily participated.
Materials: A questionnaire that comprises of three sections-Section 1: demographic data, Section 2: targets of comparison, and Section 3: self-relevant activities and performance evaluation-was used.
Procedure: Quantitative data were collected by means of survey method. In the Section 1, participant`s demographic data such as age, gender, and birth order were asked. In the Section 2, participants were asked to choose two targets of comparison, a close friend and a sibling. In the Section 3, participant`s highly self-relevant activity (HR) and lowly self-relevant activity (LR) were asked. Then, participants were asked to rate performance of self, sibling, and friend in the highly self-relevant activity and lowly self-relevant activity by using a 7-point scale (1 is " lowest " and 7 is " highest ").
Hypotheses: (1) Participants will avoid comparison process both in sibling relationships and in friend relationships, (2) Participants will utilize reflection process both in sibling relationships and in friend relationships, (3) Birth order will have a significant effect on self-evaluation maintenance processes both in sibling relationships and in friend relationships.
Data Analysis: A within-subject repeated measure ANOVA was conducted to compare participant ´ s rating on performance of self and other (sibling or friend) in two self-relevant activities. Furthermore, the same data analysis method was separately conducted for the different birth order groups: Firstborn (FB), Middleborn (MB), Lastborn (LB), and Only-child (OC).
Result
Sibling relationships: In highly self-relevant activities, participants perceived their performance significantly higher than their sibling`s performance, F(1, 617)= 82.19, p < .001, ηp &sup 2; = .12. In lowly self-relevant activity, participants perceived their performance significantly lower than their sibling`s performance, F(1, 617)= 260.20, p < .001, η p ² = .30. These findings show that participants avoided comparison process and utilize reflection process in sibling relationships.
Birth order effect on self-evaluation maintenance process in sibling relationships: In highly self-relevant activities, firstborn, F(1, 244)= 105 .21, p < .001, η p ² = .03, and lastborn, F(1, 205 )=18 .96, p < .001, η p ² = .09, perceived their performance significantly higher than their sibling`s performance while middleborn did not perceive their performance higher than their sibling`s performance, F(1, 166)= .33, n .s. In lowly self-relevant activities, firstborn, F(1, 244)=106 .97, p < .001, η p ² = .31, middleborn, F(1, 166)=57 .45, p < .001, η p ² = .26, and lastborn, F(1, 205)= 96 .18, p < .001, η p ² = .32, perceived their performance significantly lower than their sibling`s performance.
Friend relationships: In highly self-relevant activities, participants perceived their performance significantly higher than their friend`s performance, F(1, 704)= 38 .08, p < .01, η p ² = .05. In lowly self-relevant activities, participants perceived their performance significantly lower than their sibling`s performance, F(1, 704)= 274 .42, p < .01, η p ² = .28. These findings show that participants avoid comparison process and utilize reflection process in friend relationships.
Birth order effect on self-evaluation maintenance process in friend relationships: In highly self-relevant activities, firstborn, F(1, 245)= 28 .21, p < .001, η p ² = .11, lastborn, F(1, 205)= 10 .09,p < .01, η p ² = .05, and only-child, F(1, 85)= 10 .46, p < .01, η p ² = .11, perceived their performance significantly higher than their friend ´ s performance, while middleborn did not perceive their performance higher than their friend`s performance, F(1, 166)= .36, n .s. In lowly self-relevant activities, firstborn, F(1, 245)= 96 .42, p < .001, η p ² = .28, middleborn, F (1, 166)= 47 .15, p < .001, η p ² = .22, lastborn, F(1, 205)= 84 .70, p < .001, η p ² = .29, and only-child, F(1, 85)= 49 .93, p < .001, η p ² = .37, perceived their performance significantly lower than their friend`s performance.
Discussion
University students clearly showed self-evaluation maintenance mechanism in sibling relationships. Compared to friend relationships, it takes rather long time to maintain self-evaluation in sibling relationships (see Isozaki & Takahashi, 1988, Isozaki & Pierce, 2010). It is notable that, unlike other birth orders, middleborn was unlikely to avoid comparison process both in sibling relationships and in friend relationships.
References
1.Isozaki, M ., & Takahashi, S . (1988). Self-evaluation maintenance processes in friend choice and school performance. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 59, 113-119.
2.Isozaki, M ., & Pierce, N . (2010). Self-evaluation maintenance among high school students in Japan. Educational Studies, 55, 63-70.
3.Tesser, A . (1988). Toward a self-evaluation maintenance model of social behavior. Advances in experimental social psychology, 21, 181-227.

詳細検索