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≪Organizer Abstract≫
This symposium focuses on the behavior and cognition of both captive and wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). Recent studies revealed a number of traits in which bonobos and chimpanzees are more similar to humans than they are each other. We show how this means that bonobos provide an extremely powerful test of ideas about human uniqueness as well as being crucial to determining the evolutionary processes by which cognitive traits evolve in apes. Compared to chimpanzees, bonobos are known as a more peaceful cooperative animals. Thus bonobos are a good model to investigate the evolution of peace. In this symposium, recent outstanding studies on bonobos' cooperation, prosociality, agonistic interaction, consolation and empathy are reported. Through the empirical facts, we discuss how cooperative society is achieved in our closest relatives, which will help us consider the way to realize peace in our human societies.
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