A case study to promote deep understanding in history:Developing skills to construct causal comprehension through cognitive counseling

[Speaker] Suetsugu, Rei:1

In learning history, understanding historical contexts is an important perspective for students to gain. However, many Japanese students tend to only memorize historical events as fragmented knowledge. The present study investigated a way of addressing this problem through a case study in cognitive counseling (Ichikawa, 1993), which is a kind of personal tutoring based on models of cognitive psychology. This approach aims to foster self-regulated learners, who can deal with cognitive problems in learning, such as memorization and motivation. The counseling client was a 2nd-grade male student in high school. He was instructed by the counselor to use scheme, and other specific learning strategies for constructing causal understanding. Results of analyses of protocol and note-taking data revealed that this client came to recognize the importance of historical contexts. After the cognitive counseling sessions, he not only referred to historical events but also the background factors and result of those events.
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