演題情報

Invited Lecture

開催回
第60回・2015年・横浜
 

Uremic Toxins from Colon Microbes

演題番号 : GI-10-6

Timothy W. Meyer:1、Tammy L. Sirich:1、Hisae Tanaka:1

1:Stanford and VA Palo Alto HCS, USA

 

Our human bodies are heavily colonized by microbes. The largest collection of these microbes, with a density of 1010 to 1012 cell/ml, inhabits the colon. In cell number and even more in gene number, the colon microbial population or colon "microbiome" dwarfs its human host. DNA sequencing technology has greatly increased our knowledge of the diversity and function of the colon microbes. In mammalian evolution, their chief value has been to extract energy from plant polysaccharides that cannot be digested by host enzymes. The action of colon microbes on foodstuffs and intestinal secretions, however, generates numerous organic compounds in addition to those that are useful to their host. Many of these organic waste compounds are normally excreted by the kidneys and must be removed by renal replacement therapy when the kidneys fail. Mass spectrometry is expanding our knowledge of their chemical identity. There is evidence that the most extensively studied of the colon-derived solutes, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresol sulfate, and trimethylamine oxide are toxic. Much more study is required to establish the toxicity of other solutes in this class. Because they are made in an isolated compartment by microbes, their production may prove simpler to suppress than the production of other waste solutes. To the extent that they are toxic, suppressing their production could improve the health of renal failure patients without the need for more intensive or prolonged dialysis.

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