≪Organizer Abstract≫
When discussing origins of cooperation, empathy, and other forms of interactions and their underlying mechanisms relating to social bonding, ingroup and outgroup bias come to be one of the important factors to be considered. However, how researchers, and individuals involved in social interaction, could define them and draw the line between "us" and "them"? The point here should be that this "line" is rather flexible,not simply reflecting the category defined by nationality, race, language orany other forms of social markers. The symposium will present empirical researches about detection of social markers and its usage in human adults and children, developmental course of "we-ness", and other relating topics of in-group favorismand nepotism. And, based on these studies, our discussion aims to approach to the instability of the concept of the "group" for the individual, and how humans flexivilly cope with such instability.
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