≪Organizer Abstract≫
This symposium presents four empirical studies on individual development and offspring rearing in diversified environments among great apes and humans. In order to learn the evolutionary modified process of human development, it is necessary to share comparative perspectives for understanding cultural variations within a species as well as biological and developmental differences among multiple species. The topics covered in the presentations are on cognitive and motor development in a human reared chimpanzee with cerebral palsy by Hideko Takeshita (Japan), social development focused on mother-infant interactions of captive and wild chimpanzees by Misato Hayashi (Japan) and orangutans by Renata Andreia da Silva Mendonça (Japan-Portugal) and evolutionary and developmental origins of smiles in primates by Fumito Kawakami (Japan). Jonathan Delafield-Butt (UK) discusses on the four topics by presenting his viewpoints of biological and socio-cultural origins and evolution of human development.

The evolution and development of smiles: a comparison between humans and chimpanzees

[Speaker] Kawakami, Fumito:1
1:Kyoto University (Japan)

Behavioral and cognitive development in an infant chimpanzee with cerebral palsy: An approach applying human childcare and therapy services

[Speaker] Takeshita, Hideko:1
[Co-author] Takashio, Junichi:2, Yamada, Nobuhiro:3, Takahashi, Ichiro:4, Kawakami, Fumito:5,8, Fukuda, Keiko:3, Honda, Yusuke:3, Tatara, Naruki:3, Shimomoto, Yoshiko:6, Hayashi, Misato:5, Mizuno, Yuu:7, Tomonaga, Masaki:5
1:The University of Shiga Prefecture (Japan), 2:Biwako Gakuen Medical and Welfare Center, Kusatsu (Japan), 3:Noichi Zoological Park of Kochi Prefecture (Japan), 4:Home-visit Nursing Station, Otasukeman, Offers (Japan), 5:Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University (Japan), 6:IkiIki Support Center, Welpa Kochi (Japan), 7:Chubu Gakuin University (Japan), 8:Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Japan)

Support for mothering in chimpanzees and orangutans

[Speaker] Hayashi, Misato:1
1:Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University (Japan)

Why orangutans develop slower than other great apes? A study on a Bornean population

[Speaker] Mendonça, Renata S:1
[Co-author] Kanamori, Tomoko:1, Kuze, Noko:2, Hayashi, Misato:1, Matsuzawa, Tetsuro:1
1:Kyoto University (Japan), 2:National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo (Japan)

[Discussant] Delafield-butt, Jonathan:1
1:University of Strathclyde (United Kingdom)

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